Chronic Pain Linked to Memory Decline and Dementia

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A study by Whitlock et al from the University of California, published in this month’s Jama Internal Medicine, looked into the relationship between persistent pain, memory decline and dementia. Over 10,000 senior citizens (median age of 73 years) from the Health and Retirement Study were followed for 12 years.

At baseline, persistent pain affected 11% of participants and was linked with more restrictions in daily activities and more symptoms of depression. Those with persistent pain had a greater risk (9%) of having a more rapid memory decline than those without pain. They also had a smaller increase in risk (2%) of developing dementia. These changes significantly increased the chances of being unable to manage medications (16%) or finances (12%).

What’s the causal connection between chronic pain, memory decline and dementia? The authors believe the severity of pain can decrease attention capacity and impair memory consolidation. Additionally, pain leads to stress, and stress has been shown to promote cognitive decline, mainly through hypotrophy of the hippocampus. In my opinion, the disruption of sleep can also contribute to poor memory and a decline in cognitive ability because, as we know, sleep is involved in memory processing and consolidation.

Fortunately, physiotherapy, rehabilitation, relaxation and mindfulness meditation are effective at addressing chronic pain.